The Upright Ape: A New Origin of the Species

by Aaron G. Filler, MD, PhD

Index Pages from the Book
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Abdominal pump, 187

Abemathy, John, 103

Adaptationists, 22

Agassiz, Alexander, 132

Agassiz, Louis, 132

Alexander the Great, 66

Allegory of the cave, 23

Alleles, 38,111-112

Allometry, 124

Alveoli, 181

Anatomy, function vs., 79-80

Andrews, Carol, 73

Antoinette, Marie, 64

Apes of the Miocene era, 200-201

Apomorphy, 116

Appel, Toby, 62

Archetype, 44,53,152

Aristotle, 22-24,28,78,129

Arthropods, 84,85-86

Arthropods, vertebrates and, 82

Auden, W. H., 47

Autenreith, Johann, 55

Axial HOMS, 136-137

 

B

Bateson, William, 109,111,112,114,251

Becquerel, Henri, 90

Begun, David, 223

Berthollet, Claude Louis, 25,64

Bilateral symmetry, 157458

Bilateria, 155-160,168

Bilinguals, 66

Biological species definition, 92

Bipedal hominiform hominoids, 195-196

Bipedalism, 219-222,252,254-255,257

Bipedalism, BHBK, 247-248

Bipedalism, explanations for, 253-254

Bipedalism, hominiform, 251-256

Bird breathing, 188

Bishop, William, 196-197

Blastopore, 38

Body axis, 14,168,253-254

Body plans, 14,16

Book of the Dead, The, 70,71,72,73,74

 

Bouchard, Pierre, 66

Brachiation, 202-203,232-233

Brueys, Vice-Admiral, 65

Budge, E. A. Wallis, 70,72

 

C

Cambrian explosion, the, 13,16,37,139,

140, 144,146,157

Campbell, Joseph, 63

Carroll, Sean, 258

Categorization of the animal kingdom, 78-79

Cation substitution, 142

Cell-type evolution, 135

Central nervous system, 162-163

Centrum, 173-174

Champollion, Jean-Francois, 67

Chelation buffers, 142

Chemical elements, 63,89-90

Chest wall design, 178,181

Christ, 73

Chromosomal speciation, 96-101

Chromosomes, genes and, 96-97

Chromosomic centric fusion, 102

Cinefluourography, 229,247

Cineradiography, 176-177

Cis-acting, 41

Clades, 137-146

Cladists, 12,94

Cladograms, 116-117

Clarke, Edward Daniel, 75,76

Classification, 28,78-79,115,123,129,131

Connectivity, 77

Copernicus, 63

Correns, Carl, 112

Creation, 31,68

Cretaceous period, 187

Crick, Francis, 19

Cripps, John Marten, 75

Crompton, Robin H., 247

Cross fertility, 84

Crossed nerve tracts, 82

Cuvier, George, 29,34,61,64,76--77,78-81,88,104-105

Cuvier-Geoffroy Debate, The, 62

Cyanobacterium, 148

Cycling genetic clock, 166

 

D

D'Azyr, Felix Vicq, 47

Diagonograde, 226

Dainton, Mike, 231-232

Darwin, 19,20,21,23,25,26,30,31-33,40,43,57,

62,63,81,86,90,95,102,104,109,111,113,

127,130,157,164,190,226,256

Darwinian Evolutionary Theory, 9,11-41, 61, 62, 68, 83,

91-92,102,103,140,192

Darwinian Thresholds, the, 147-150

Dawkins, Richard, 20-21,131,136

De Queiroz, Kevin, 94-95

Deacon, Terrence W., 87, 258

Defining form, the essentiality of, 50

DeRobertis, Edward, 152-153

Description de l'Egypte, 65, 68,71

Deuterostomes, 84

DeVore, Irven, 255-260

DeVries, Hugo, 112

Diagonograde posture, 207

Diagonograde, 234

Dinosaur domination, the, 13-14

Dinosaurs, 225

running and, 188-190

success and diversification of, 17

Discontinuity, homological, 113

Djed symbols, 68-69,71,72,73-74

DNA 43,87,96,14140,141-146,149-150,167,255

Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 19

Dorso-ventral flip, 82,83-84

 

E

Eckermann, Johann, 55

Egypt, 65-74

Eidos, 45

Einstein, Albert, 40,63

Elizabeth I, 128

Embryogenesis, 84, 87

Embryological development, 19-21, 22

Embryological formation, 157

Embryonic ossification centers, 77, 88

Endosymbiosis, 148

Equilibrium theory, 91

Evo-devo, 12, 22, 24, 37, 87

Evolution, 127-146,157,215,256

Evolutionary biology, 20

Evolutionary Theory, 9,11-41,61,62,68,83,

     91-92,102,103,140,192

Evolutionary thinking, classic vs. modern, 163

Evolutionists, 33

Extinction, 128

 

F

Faulkner, Raymond, 71,73

Faust, 45-46,58

Feet, 250-251

Fermi, Enrico, 90

Fisher, Ronald A., 19,113

Fleagle, John, 227,229-2.30,231,253-254

Flemming, Walther, 101

Flower, William, 113414,116,201,211

Fossilization, 16

Frank, Johann Peter, 55

Functionalism, 22

Fusco, Giuseppe, 167

 

G

Galileo, 63

Gametes, 95,101-102

Gardiner, A H., 72-73

Gebo, Daniel, 202,205,232

Gene spread, 95-96

Gene transfer, 147-149

General homology, 108,109

Genetic clock, cycling, 166

Genetic gradients, 166

Genetics, 112-113,241

Genetics, population, 113

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne, 11, 15, 21, 24-25,

26-27,29,33-34,38,40,61-88,

104-108,133,152,154,156,253

Geoffroy, Isidore, 75,76

Ghiselin, Michael, 127-130

God, creation by, 31

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 11, 24-25,26-27, 31,

33-34,36,40,43-59,62,86, 89,105,133,152, 154,164,168,172

Goethe, Oken and, 53-59

Grobben, Karl, 84

Gould, Stephen Jay, 21,22,36,39,91,94,122,

     127,130-134,137,138,256

Great Academy Debate of 1830, the, 61-62,79,104

 

H

Hahn, Otto, 90

Hamilton, William Richard, 75

Hauy, Rene-Just, 61,63,64

Hawkins, Waterhouse, 225

Heel-strike walking, 221

Hennig, Will, 93-95,106,108,116,118-125

Herder, Johann Gottfried, 50,53,56

Herder, Karoline, 56

Hero with a Thousand Faces, 63

Heterobranchus, 77

Hieroglyphics, 66,68,69-70,72,73

High Order Modules (HOMs), 122,123-124,

127,133,134,135-137,146,166,192,257

History of Life, the, 11-41,66,82,149,172,256,259

HIV virus, 141-146

Hobbes, Thomas, 128-130

Holderlin, Friedrich, 56

Holophyly, 120

Home, Everard, 103

Homeobox, 145

Homeobox genes, 153

Homeodomain, 145

Homeotic specialization, 191

Hominiform bipedalism, 251-256

Hominiforms, 192

Hominoid lumbar regions, 244

Hominoids, 199-200

Hominoids, homeotics and, 239-245

Homological discontinuity, 113

Homological transmutation, 113

Homology of bones, 77

Homology paradigm, failure of the, 114

Homology, 30,81,88,103-125,211,226

Homoplasy, 108

HOMs, axial, 136-137

Horizontal gene transfer, 147-148,149

Horus, 68,70

Hox genes, 26,34,37,41,43,68,70,77,79,80,87,

104,107,109,113,122,123,125,135-137,140,

145,146,150,152,153,156-157,161-166,172,

173,191-192,193,255

Human intelligence, 87

Human lineage, the transformation that launched the, 14

Humanian model, 208

Hunter, John, 103-104,201

Hutchinson, John Hely, 75-76

Huxley, Thomas Henry, 31

Hylobatian Theory, 201-204

Hylobatid divergence, 214

Hylobatid lumbar reversion, 205

Hylobatids, 204-205,243

Hylobatian model, 209 Hyoid, 104-105

I

Ichthyostega, 169-170

Iliac crest, 250

Intelligent Design, 68

Intercentrum, 173-174

Isis, 68,70,71,73

Italian Journey, 47

 

J

Jackson, Elizabeth, 47

Jenkins, Farish A., 229-230,231,247

Jenner, Ronald, 86,87

Johanson, Don, 249

K

Kant, 59

Keith, Arthur, 201-204,207,209,242

Kielmeyer, Carl Friederich, 55

Knuckle-walking, 207,225-238

Kohler, Meike, 247

L

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 61,

Laminapophysis, 185

Land vertebrates, homeotic evolution in,169-190

Laplace, 25

Last Universal Common Ancestor, 149-150

Lavoisier, Antoine, 24-25,43,45,63-64,89

Lever, Andrew, 141-144

Leviathan, 128

Lewis, Owen J., 227,229-230

Lichtneckert, 162,163

LIM domain, 145

Linnaeus, Carolus, 28-29,115,129

Locomotion in invertebrates, 160

Locomotion,

hominoid, 198-208

mammalian, 176-178

Morotopithecus, 219-222

quadrupedal, 234,244,247

vertebrate, 174-176

Lovejoy, Owen, 247,251-252

LTP, embryology of, 210

Lumbar back muscles, 249-250

Lumbar configurations of the great apes, 239

Lumbar transverse process,

the transmutation of, 208-219

Lumbar transverse processes (LTPs), 209, 213,

214-215,217,236-237,244,257

Lung structure, 181

Lyell, Charles, 91

 

M

Macho, Gabrielle, 231-232

MacLatchy, Laura, 198,220

Macroevolution, 131

Magnetic Resonance Neurography, 9,242,243

Mammalian breathing, 187-188

Mammalian design, alteration of the basic, 215,217

Mammalian takeover, the, 14

Mammals, the diversification of, 14

Materials for the Study of Variation, 111,241

Mayer, Elizabeth, 47

Mayr, Ernst, 21,86,92,93-95,118,120-125

Meckel, Johann, 27

Meier, 33,167

Meiosis, 95,100,101-102

Meitner, Lise, 90

Mendel, Gregor, 19,79,102,111-113,241

Mendeleev, 89

Menou, Jacques Francois, 66,74-76

Meristic changes, 242

Mesozoic mammals, 217

Metamer, 133

Metazoans, 150

Minelli, Alessandro, 167

Mirror mutation, 157

Mitosis, 100

Modern Synthesis, 19,20,95,102,123,157

Modification, 15

Modularity Theory, 11-41,127-146

Modularity, 24

Monomer, 53

Monophyly, 120

Monotremes, 181,183, 185

Montagu, John, 66

Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 101

Moroto 11,196, 196,197

Moroto transformation, 257

Moroto vertebra, 196-198,209

Morphogenetic genes, 193

Morphological genetics, 20

Morphology, 107,122

Morphospace, 36

Moya-Sola, Salvador, 247

N

Napoleon, 64-65,75,73

Natural selection, 15-16,17,19,38,81,130,

     148, 157,190,201

Naturalists, 33

Naturphilosophie, 57

Nelson, Horatio, 65

Neomorphic laminapophysis, 211

Nephthys, 70

Nerve tracts, crossed, 82

Neural arch, 173

Neural crest cells, 167

Newton, Isaac, 40,58,63

NHP SREs, 173

Nietzche, 55

Nodal, 84

 

O

Observation, 35-36

Oken, Lorenz, 26-27,53-59

Omar, 76

Origin of biological descent, the, 12

Origin of Species, The, 11,21,26, 31, 57,81,

     91,92,109,226

Origin of vertebrates, the, 13

Ornithopoda, 190

Orthograde, 234

Osiris, 68,70,71, 72,73

Ossification, 88

Owen, Richard, 29-33,80-81,90-91 ,103-107,

     108-109,114,129,201,225-227,229

 

P

Parcelation, 33

Pax gene, 150,152,156,255,259,191-192,193

Pax1 gene, 193,254

Pax9 gene, 254

Pearson, Karl, 112

Periodic table of elements, 24,89

Phenetics, 124

Photosynthesis, 148,256

Phylogenetic Systematics, 93

PhyloCode, 120,122,125

Phylogenetics relationships, 93

Pilbeam, David, 9,209,242,251

Pinch, Geraldine, 73

Plato, 22-24,45,58

Platonism, 108

Pleiomorphic changes, 124

Pleiotropic event, 193

Plesiomorphy, 116

Pleurocentrum, 174

Plutarch, 71

Polypterus, 65,72,77,79

Pongids, 206

Population genetics, 113

Posture, 208-209,226,234,252,259-260

Preuschoft, 252

Primal Plant, the, 49-50,51-53

Primate Adaptation and Evolution, 253

Proconsul, 196

Pronograde primates, 255

Pronograde, 234

Proteus concept, 26,44-45

Ptolemy Epiphanes, 67

Protostomes, 84

Punctuated equilibria, 39

 

Q

Quadrupedal ape stage, 195

Quadrupedalism, 254-255

R

Regionalization, 169

Reichert, 82,162,163

Remak, 31

Reproductive barrier, 93

Reproductive isolation, 95

Reverse transcriptase, 142-144

Rib cage of mammals, 183-185

Richmond, Brian, 230-231,232

RNA, 141-144,149-150

Rook, Lorenzo, 247

Rose, Michael, 18,197

Rosetta Stone, 65-67,68,74,76

Running, 251

Running, breathing while, 178-186

Rutherford, Ernest, 89-90

Ruvolo, Maryellen, 232

S

Sacrum, 250

Sasai, Yoshiki, 152-153

Schaeffer, Daniel, 47

Schelling, Friedrich, 56,57,59

Schiller, Friedrich von, 56-57

Schultz, Adolph, 242

Segmental duplication, 158

Segmentation, 151-152154,155-156,157,168

Selfish Gene, The, 131

Serial homology, 108,109

Seth, 70

Simeone, 82

Simpson, Gaylord, 91-92

Smith, Edwin, 70-71

Somites, 135,156,164-168

Somitomeres, 33, 168

Soret, Frederic, 62

Special homology, 108,109

Speciation, 15,38,83,89-102,128,158

Spinal adaptation, 234-238

Spinal number changes, 241-245

Spine, 169-172,208-209

Stanley, Steven, 91

Steiner, Rudolf, 55

Stern, Jack, 205, 230,234

Stollewerk, Angelika 152,156

Strait, David, 230-231,232

Structure of Evolutionary Theory, The 127,130

Struhl, Gary, 34

Styloid, 211

Symbolic Species, The, 87

Symplesiomorphy, 116,118,139

Synapomorphy, 116

Systema Naturae, 28

Systematics, 103-125

T

Tam, 33,167

Teeth, 155

Teleology, 81

Terminal addition, 13,155-156,157

Tetrapods, 175

Thrinaxodon, 18

Tomb of Alexander, 75

Transmutation, 19,89-92

Troglodytian Model, 206

Tuttle, Russell, 207,209,227,229,231,233

Typology, 22,52,129,130

 

U

Urbilaterian, 152-156

Urkaryotes, 148,149

V

Vereecke, Evie, 204-205

Vertebrae, 147-168

Vertebrae, architecture of the, 172-174

Vertebral archetype concept, 27

Vertebral theory of the skull, 168

Vertebral theory, rejection of, 31

Vertebrates, homeotic evolution in land, 169-190

Vertebrates, the origin of, 13,16-17,81-88

Vertical gene transfer, 148

Vicq d'Azyr, Felix, 64

Visionary Naturalist, A, 82

Voigt, Friedrich Siegmund, 56

Von Kaib, Charlotte, 55-57

Von Tschermak, Erich, 112

 

w

Walker, Alan, 18,197,200

Wallace, Russell, 57

Wang, Weijie, 247

Ward, Carol, 200,239

Washburn, Sherwood  206-207, 229, 232, 259

Watson, James, 19

Weight-bearing, 235-236

Weismann, August, 101

Weldon, F. R., 112

Woese, Carl, 87,147-148

Woodward, John, 66

Wrists, 229-230

 

x

 X-rays, 230-231, 242,243,247

 

Y

Young, Thomas, 67

 

z

Zur Morphologie, 54

 

 

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