The Upright Ape: A New Origin of the Species

by Aaron G. Filler, MD, PhD

Figure 10-4 - Hominiform Lumbar Anatomy & Primate Evolution

Hominiform spines

Figure 10-4 - Hominoid Spine Phylogeny.

 Relationships of primate groups and hominoid species showing some aspects of difference in spinal anatomy. Notice the longer flexible lumbar spines in humans and hylobatids contrasted with the ultra-short lumbar region in the orangutan, gorilla and chimpanzee. The family name “hominiformid” is suggested here to describe a clade (natural group) that includes Morotopithecus and all existing apes and humans as well as other extinct species whose ancestor had the human-style modification of the lumbar vertebra.

Figure credit -

Diagram redrawn, modified by AGF after: Filler, A. G. (1993). Evolution of the sacrum in hominoids. Surgical Disorders of the Sacrum. J. R. Doty and S. S. Rengachary. New York, N.Y., Thieme Medical Publishers: 13-20.

Primate spines from: Filler, A. G. (1986). Axial Character Seriation in Mammals: An Historical and Morphological Exploration of the Origin, Development, Use and Current Collapse of the Homology Paradigm - PhD Thesis. Cambridge, Massachusetts -  (Digital 2nd Printing: BrownWalker Press, Boca Raton, Florida 2007, 349 p), Harvard University.

Redrawn, modified by AGF - drawings of animal figures of gibbon, gorilla, macaque, and lemur after: Primate sketches after: Napier, J. R. and P. H. Napier (1985). The Natural History of the Primates. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.

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